Plant Cell Physiol 44:1119–1130, Yan WH, Wang P, Chen HX, Zhou HJ, Li QP, Wang CR, Ding ZH, Zhang YS, Yu SB, Xing YZ, Zhang QF (2011) A major QTL, Ghd8, plays pleiotropic roles in regulating grain productivity, plant height, and heading date in rice. In rice (Oryza sativa L.), there is a diversity in flowering time that is strictly genetically regulated. Photoperiod-dependent flowering in rice is regulated by HEADING DATE 1 (Hd1), which acts as both an activator and repressor of flowering in a daylength-dependent manner. Rice flowers after a lengthy vegetative growth. Generally, flowering in paddy rice occurs by anther extrusion between the opening and closing of the spikelet. Hd6 enhances the repressive activity of Hd1 and is defective in some japonica cultivars (Takahashi et al., 2001; Ogiso et al., 2010; Ebana et al., 2011). RFT1 is located only 11.5 kb from Hd3a on chromosome 6. During the vegetative growth period flowering is inhibited by several independent pathways. Grey arrows (represented only in A) indicate the requirement for Hd3a expression at southern latitudes and for Hd3a and RFT1 expression at higher latitudes. Recently identified genetic factors provide new insights into this complex trait. proposed a robust approach to detect rice flowering panicles from high definition RGB images of field taken under natural conditions. Rice flowers after a lengthy vegetative growth. Some indica cultivars show extremely late flowering under long-day conditions, but little is known about the gene(s) involved. Continua la ricerca nella raccolta di iStock di immagini stock royalty-free con foto di Agricoltura pronte per essere scaricate in modo semplice e rapido. The genes involved in the photoperiod pathway are conserved Planta 228:355–365, Kim SL, Lee S, Kim HJ, Nam HG, An G (2007a) OsMADS51 is a short-day flowering promoter that functions upstream of Ehd1, OsMADS14, and Hd3a. This comprises of flowering and fruiting events. Flowering time (heading date) in rice (Oryza sativa) is an important agronomic trait that determines yield. In addition to these major loci, polymorphisms in the DNA sequence of other alleles have also contributed to the northern adaptation of rice. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions, An S, Park S, Jeong DH, Lee DY, Kang HG, Yu JH, Hur J, Kim SR, Kim YH, Lee M, Han S, Kim SJ, Yang J, Kim E, Wi SJ, Chung HS, Hong JP, Choe V, Lee HK, Choi JH, Nam J, Kim SR, Park PB, Park KY, Kim WT, Choe S, Lee CB, An G (2003) Generation and analysis of end sequence database for T-DNA tagging lines in rice. Development 136:3443–3450, Kwon CT, Yoo SC, Koo BH, Cho SH, Park JW, Zhang Z, Li J, Li Z, Paek NC (2014) Natural variation in Early flowering1 contributes to early flowering in japonica rice under long days. J. Although PRR5 promotes flowering in Arabidopsis, transgenic rice overexpressing Arabidopsis PRR5 caused late flowering. Plant Cell Physiol 50:429–438, Putterill J, Robson F, Lee K, Simon R, Coupland G (1995) The CONSTANS gene of Arabidopsis promotes flowering and encodes a protein showing similarities to zinc finger transcription factors. Non-functional alleles at Hd1, PRR37, Ghd7 and Ghd8 loci are generated by SNPs, insertions or deletions, leading to dramatic changes in florigen expression and heading dates. EMBO J 18:4679–4688, Gao H, Zheng XM, Fei G, Chen J, Jin M, Ren Y, Wu W, Zhou K, Sheng P, Zhou F, Jiang L, Wang J, Zhang X, Guo X, Wang JL, Cheng Z, Wu C, Wang H, Wan JM (2013) Ehd4 encodes a novel and Oryza-genus-specific regulator of photoperiodic flowering in rice. The three most important agronomic traits of rice ( Oryza sativa ), yield, plant height, and flowering time, are controlled by many quantitative trait loci (QTLs). [ … Repressors (or suppressors) of flowering play a crucial role in reducing florigen gene expression under LD conditions, leading to a strong delay in heading date. This work was supported by an ERC Starting Grant (#260963) to F.F. Different genes involved in flowering time in rice have reported in several studies (Yokoo et al. Although PRR5 promotes flowering in Arabidopsis, transgenic rice overexpressing Arabidopsis PRR5 caused late flowering. Long-day specific activators OsMADS50 and OsDof12, and a constitutive activators Oryza sativa INDETERMINATE 1 (OsId1), Early heading date 4 (Ehd4), and miR172, are accumulated in the leaves when plants are grown sufficiently. Both of the “florigen” genes are regulated by Hd1, Early heading date 1 (Ehd1), and Days to heading 2 (DTH2) (4, 7, 13). Flowering time control is critically important for the reproductive accomplishment of higher plants as floral transition can be affected by both environmental and endogenous signals. Curr Opin Plant Biol 14:45–52, Valverde F, Mouradov A, Soppe W, Ravenscroft D, Samach A, Coupland G (2004) Photoreceptor regulation of CONSTANS protein in photoperiodic flowering. Plant Cell Physiol 53:709–716, Monna L, Lin X, Kojima S, Sasaki T, Yano M (2002) Genetic dissection of a genomic region for a quantitative trait locus, Hd3, into two loci, Hd3a and Hd3b, controlling heading date in rice. Like rice, switchgrass is a SD plant, yet it has been demonstrated that photoperiod has no influence on flowering time of the widely used switchgrass cultivar Alamo (Esbroeck & Hussey, 2003). Article This suggests that naturally occurring mutations in PRR37 and Ghd7 play an important role in rice adaptation from low to high latitudes (Koo et al., 2013). J Mol Evol 61:579–590, CAS It is the most significant where vegetative organs transit from vegetative to reproductive stage. Part of Springer Nature. Plant Cell Physiol 47:915–925, Hori K, Ogiso-Tanaka E, Matsubara K, Yamanouchi U, Ebana K, Yano M (2013) Hd16, a gene for casein kinase I, is involved in the control of rice flowering time by modulating the day-length response. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12374-015-0425-x, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12374-015-0425-x, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Among them, recent studies have shown how naturally occurring variants of EL1/Hd16 alleles in japonica cultivars influence Ghd7 activity (Matsubara et al., 2012; Hori et al., 2013; Kwon et al., 2014). Flowering time is a key trait for geographical and seasonal adaptation of plants and is an important consideration for rice breeders. Rice cultivars with functional Hd1 alleles showed higher Hd3a expression levels and earlier flowering times under SD conditions, whereas those with non-functional Hd1 alleles showed lower Hd3a expression levels and later flowering times (Takahashi et al., 2009). Although RFT1 RNAi plants flowered normally, double RFT1 - Hd3a RNAi plants did not flower up to 300 days after sowing … In rice (Oryza sativa), Early heading date 1 (Ehd1) is a major inducer of florigen gene expression. Botany of Paddy Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world and it is the staple food for over 2.7 billion people. Article Although several inhibitors that delay flowering have been identified, the process by which rice eventually flowers under non-permissive LD conditions is not well understood. (2012), Gao et al. 3A). Plant Cell Environ 37:101–112, Lee H, Suh SS, Park E, Cho E, Ahn JH, Kim SG, Lee JS, Kwon YM, Lee I (2000) The AGAMOUS-LIKE 20 MADS domain protein integrates floral inductive pathways in Arabidopsis. More information: Xun Xu et al, Divergence in flowering time is a major component contributing to reproductive isolation between two wild rice … Common wild rice ( O. rufipogon ), the progenitor of cultivated rice, is a facultative short‐day (SD) plant that flowers early in SD (10‐h light/14‐h dark) and late in long‐day (LD; 14‐h light/10‐h dark) photoperiods. (2010), Fujino et al. EMBO J 29:1916–1927, Dai X, Ding Y, Tan L, Fu Y, Liu F, Zhu Z, Sun X, Sun X, Gu P, Cai H, Sun C (2012) LHD1, an allele of DTH8/Ghd8, controls late heading date in common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon). 1. Photoperiod and temperature are two pivotal regulatory factors of plant flowering. Nature 449:356–360, Kojima S, Takahashi Y, Kobayashi Y, Monna L, Sasaki T, Araki T, Yano M (2002) Hd3a, a rice ortholog of the Arabidopsis FT gene, promotes transition to flowering downstream of Hd1 under short-day conditions. Basmati rice is considered se n-sitive to photoperiod as well … The BBCH-scale (rice) identifies the phenological development stages of rice Oryza sativa. plant flowering and LD (long-day) promotes flowering of Arabidopsis and most rice cultivars recognize 13.5-h light/10.5-h dark as a critical photoperiod to separate long-days from short-days. Mol Plant 6:202–215, Yano M, Sasaki T (1997) Genetic and molecular dissection of quantitative traits in rice. PubMed Flowering Signal in Rice Shojiro Tamaki, Shoichi Matsuo, Hann Ling Wong, Shuji Yokoi,* Ko Shimamoto † Florigen, the mobile signal that moves from an induced leaf to the shoot apex and causes Heading stages are identified by percentages, and the 50 percent heading stage occurs when 50 percent of rice stems are heading or headed (panicle completely emerged from the stem). Biochim Biophys Acta 1769:316–329, Ogiso E, Takahashi Y, Sasaki T, Yano M, Izawa T (2010) The role of casein kinase II in flowering time regulation has diversified during evolution. RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 ( RFT1/FT-L3 ) is the closest homologue of Heading date 3a ( Hd3a ), which is thought to encode a mobile flowering signal and promote floral transition under short-day (SD) conditions. Some indica cultivars show extremely late flowering under long-day conditions, but little is known about the gene(s) involved. To maximize reproductive success and grain production, flowering time must be precisely regulated by integrating internal and external cues. 3A) were detected in a wide range of latitudes, including the northern limit of rice cultivation (Koo et al., 2013). In particular, drought can interfere with flowering; therefore, many plants hasten this process to shorten their life cycle under water scarcity, and this is known as drought-escape response. Photoperiod-dependent flowering in rice is regulated by HEADING DATE 1 (Hd1), which acts as both an activator and repressor of flowering in a daylength-dependent manner. Flowering time (heading date) in rice (Oryza sativa) is an important agronomic trait that determines yield. From additional QTL analyses, Hd6, a minor heading date allele, was detected (Yamamoto et al., 2000). Ultimately, florigens such as FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) or FT-like molecules induce flowering. Genes Dev 18:926–936, Farre EM, Kay SA (2007) PRR7 protein levels are regulated by light and the circadian clock in Arabidopsis. Rice ( Oryza sativa ) is a facultative short-day plant that flowers very late when grown in non-inductive long day conditions. These showed a stronger effect as floral promoters under natural LD conditions in comparison with other alleles (Matsubara et al., 2012; Gao et al., 2013; Wu et al., 2013). PLoS One 7:e45307, Conrad L, Khanday I, Johnson C, Guiderdoni E, An G, Vijayraghavan U, Sundaresan V (2014) The polycomb group gene EMF2B is essential for maintenance of floral meristem determinacy in rice. Breed Sci 53:51–59, Liu X, Zhou C, Zhao Y, Zhou S, Wang W, Zhou DX (2014) The rice enhancer of zeste [E(z)] genes SDG711 and SDG718 are respectively involved in long day and short day signaling to mediate the accurate photoperiod control of flowering time. Plant J 66:603–612, Matsubara K, Ogiso-Tanaka E, Hori K, Ebana K, Ando T, Yano M (2012) Natural variation in Hd17, a homolog of Arabidopsis ELF3 that is involved in rice photoperiodic flowering. OF PAGES 8 Please cite this article in press as: Tsuji H, et al. PubMed Conversely, non-functional Hd1 alleles in varieties grown under LDs will anticipate heading, contributing to cultivation at high latitudes (Izawa, 2007). However, cultivated rice is grown extensively throughout Asia, and at the northern extremes of rice cultivation, including Japan and northern provinces of China and Korea, natural day length during rice cultivation is nearly LD (13-14.5 hours light) (Izawa, 2007), making LD flowering agronomically important in these regions. Google Scholar, Kaczorowski KA, Quail PH (2003). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:7922–7927, Takano M, Inagaki N, Xie X, Yuzurihara N, Hihara F, Ishizuka T, Yano M, Nishimura M, Miyao A, Hirochika H, Shinomura T (2005) Distinct and cooperative functions of phytochromes A, B, and C in the control of deetiolation and flowering in rice. After sufficient vegetative growth, flowering signals are produced in the leaves due to reduced expression of the inhibitors. Article Gynheung An. Google Scholar, Ishikawa R, Tamaki S, Yokoi S, Inagaki N, Shinomura T, Takano M, Shimamoto K (2005) Suppression of the floral activator gene Hd3a is the principal cause of the night break effect in rice. Development 135:767–774, Komiya R, Yokoi S, Shimamoto K (2009) A gene network for longday flowering activates RFT1 encoding a mobile flowering signal in rice. Phase transition from vegetative to reproductive development occurs when shoot apical meristems (SAM) convert to inflorescence meristems (IM). (2008), Takahashi et al. In rice, flowering time is promoted by two FT-like genes, Heading date 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (RFT1) (Komiya et al., 2008). Google Scholar, Matsubara K, Kono I, Hori K, Nonoue Y, Ono N, Shomura A, Mizubayashi T, Yamamoto S, Yamanouchi U, Shirasawa K, Nishio T, Yano M (2008a) Novel QTLs for photoperiodic flowering revealed by using reciprocal backcross inbred lines from crosses between japonica rice cultivars. Non-functional PRR37 alleles (Fig. This phenomenon is mediated by several independent pathways. There are several major genes affecting heading date that relate to vegetative growth or photoperiod sensitivity. PubMed Several genes are preferentially expressed under such conditions, including Grain yield and heading date 7 (Ghd7), Heading date 1 (Hd1), Heading date 5 (Hd5), and Heading date 6 (Hd6). Cultivars carrying non-functional EL1/Hd16 variants (Fig. Mining genetic variation in crop species and their progenitors, and coupling it with the enormous potential of next-generation sequencing, will reach the dual objective of identifying novel regulators, perhaps difficult to pinpoint with other tools, and to exploit diversity to accelerate breeding programmes (Huang et al., 2011; Zhao et al., 2011). PLoS One 8: e75959, Osugi A, Itoh H, Ikeda-Kawakatsu K, Takano M, Izawa T (2011) Molecular dissection of the roles of phytochrome in photoperiodic flowering in rice. In rice (Oryza sativa L.), there is a diversity in flowering time that is strictly genetically regulated. The mutant allele has been used in breeding programmes outside of Japan, its country of origin, and spread to Europe, where it probably conferred an agronomic advantage over functional alleles (Wei et al., 2010; Fujino et al., 2012). Flowering time (heading date) in rice (Oryza sativa) is an important agronomic trait that determines yield.The levels of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) modulated by TRITHORAX‐like proteins regulate gene transcription, flowering time and environmental stress responses. Article CAS Google Scholar, Lee YS, An G (2015) OsGI Controls Flowering Time by Modulating Rhythmic Flowering Time Regulators Preferentially under Short Day in Rice. In contrast to all the genes described above, allelic variants of Hd17, encoding an OsELF3-like protein, DTH2, which encodes a CONSTANS-like protein, and Ehd4 do not create loss-of-function alleles but rather genetic variants showing a gradient of activity (Matsubara et al., 2012; Gao et al., 2013; Wu et al., 2013). Plant J 73:566–578, Yang Y, Peng Q, Chen GX, Li XH, Wu CY (2013b) OsELF3 is involved in circadian clock regulation for promoting flowering under long-day conditions in rice. 3. ripening (flowering to mature grain) Roll your mouse over the colored boxes Note: The floral transition of plants depends on accurate measurement of changes in photoperiod and temperature. Flowering plants of cultivated Cassinia leptocephala Plate 38. However, Ghd7 acts on a separate genetic pathway to that of PRR37 (Xue et al., 2008; Fujino et al., 2012; Koo et al., 2013). In rice, flowering time (or heading date) is critical for the adaptation to different cultivation areas and cropping seasons and may be affected by environmental conditions such us photoperiod, temperature, and light intensity. RFT1 is located only 11.5 kb from Hd3a on chromosome 6. Theor Appl Genet 117:935–945, Matsubara K, Yamanouchi U, Wang ZX, Minobe Y, Izawa T, Yano M (2008b) Ehd2, a rice ortholog of the maize INDETERMINATE1 gene, promotes flowering by up-regulating Ehd1. Active flowering generally lasts for 1–2.5 h daily during the reproductive phase, and it is very sensitive to external environmental factors such as temperature, solar radiation, etc. PLoS One 7:e43705, Zhao XL, Shi ZY, Peng LT, Shen GZ, Zhang JL (2011) An atypical HLH protein OsLF in rice regulates flowering time and interacts with OsPIL13 and OsPIL15. Arabidopsis PSEUDORESPONSE REGULATOR7 is a signaling intermediate in phytochrome-regulated seedling deetiolation and phasing of the circadian clock. Genes Dev 14:2366–2376, Lee S, Kim J, Han JJ, Han MJ, An G (2004) Functional analyses of the flowering time gene the flowering time gene OsMADS50, the putative SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO 1/AGAMOUS-LIKE 20 (SOC1/AGL20) ortholog in rice. Early heading date 1 (Ehd1), which encodes a B-type response regulator, is specific to floral induction in rice (Doi et al., 2004) and OsMADS51, The maps show the distribution of loss-of-function alleles of floral repressors, including hd16, hd1, prr37, ghd7 and dth8/ghd8 (A) or allelic variants of floral promoters associated with weak or strong activity, which include Hd17, DTH2 and Ehd4 (B). Florigen is produced in the leaves, and acts in the shoot apical meristem of buds and growing tips. Whereas Grain number, plant height, and heading date 7 (Ghd7), Heading date 1 (Hd1), Heading date 5 (Hd5), Heading date 6 (Hd6), and Heading date 16 (Hd16) preferentially function to delay flowering under long day conditions, Oryza sativa Phytochrome … Rice is a short-day plant, and we found that mutation in either phyB or phyC caused moderate early flowering under the long-day photoperiod, while monogenic phyA mutation had little effect on the flowering time. The effect of non-functional Hd1 alleles under SDs can be reinforced by the presence of non-functional Ehd1 alleles, as observed in some Taiwanese rice varieties (Doi et al., 2004). Plant J 63:18–30, CAS In spite of short day nature, rice (Oryza sativa) shares a conserved photoperiodic network for flowering control with long day plants like Arabidopsis thaliana. The length of the coloured bars on the right covers the latitudinal range across which varieties bearing the allelic variant are grown. 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