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Samia Muraweh, 19, is Ukrainian and Irish on her mother’s side, and Palestinian on her father’s side. “Ohio State University history Professor Robert Davis describes the White Slave Trade as minimized by most modern historians in his book Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500–1800 . The NAACP Empowerment Programs and Experian today announced the launch of a pilot program to assist African American homeowners at risk of losing their homes. Some of them may pass as white, but others do not. The sun pours through the open panels of the rose-colored walls of the Islamic Community Center of Phoenix, where men and women from different cultures and backgrounds are filing in for Friday prayers – jumu’ah, in Arabic. As a digital reporter for Cronkite News, she focuses primarily on how politics and public policy affect marginalized communities. The North African nation of Libya covers 1,759,541 km 2 of land area. It denotes an identity. If Hag could have his pick, he would identify himself as “Arab and Egyptian,” he said. Since moving to the United States in 2005, they have often selected “Other” when that option was available. For Eslam Hag and Maie Elkeshky, a married couple from Egypt, the question of race is just as complicated, but for other reasons. – OMB Proposal Open for Public Comment in the Federal Register until April 30 th. © 2020 Cronkite News. That’s possible because of another first: In 2020, respondents can fill out census forms online. Many younger Middle Easterners have embraced the term brown precisely because it’s ambiguous. The geographic entity North Africa has no single accepted definition. In the brief, the institute also challenged the government’s inclusion of a citizenship question and its exclusion of the MENA category, despite decades of advocacy and testing showing that the category would promote an accurate count of the Arab Americans and other ethnic communities who currently do not have a place on the census form. It has been regarded by some as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Morocco in the west to the Suez Canal and the Red Sea in the east, though this designation is more commonly referred to as northern Africa. Hanno (ca 500–450 BC): the North African navigator Hano was among the first to explore the west African coast. /* Add your own MailChimp form style overrides in your site stylesheet or in this style block. Hag, 37, is too dark-complexioned to pass for white. Instead, the administration decided to repeat the same racial and ethnic categories used in the previous census, in 2010. Immigrants from Lebanon, Syria and Palestine seeking citizenship in the United States faced opposition from nativists, who favored greater rights for white, native-born Americans, according to Matthew Jaber Stiffler, research and content manager at the Arab American National Museum in Dearborn, Michigan. Are North Africans Black, white, Middle Eastern or arabic & are they indigenous to … Samia Muraweh, whose father is Palestinian, hesitates calling herself “brown” because of her light complexion. These, Stiffler said, are some of the main reasons behind the push from the community to have its own designation on the census. To these respondents, checking a box that reads “white” does not mean they are treated as white Americans or benefit from the privileges that come with being white. The Arab conquest of North Africa began between 642-645 when general 'Amr ibn el-Aasi based in Egypt led his armies westward. And that’s often a problem. Under the proposal, the new Middle East and North African designation — or MENA, as it's called by population scholars — is broader in concept than Arab (an ethnicity) or Muslim (a religion). He sometimes selects African American on government forms; on his father’s side, he is Nubian, the indigenous people of southern Egypt and Sudan. He said that nearly everyone around him considers him a minority, but that when his ethnicity is lumped with “white” in the census, it feels as though the U.S. government does not. When he travels with white co-workers, Shami said he is almost always the only one who is pulled aside for a secondary screening by TSA employees. Creative Commons. Cronkite News is the news division of Arizona PBS. Ninety percent of this land area is covered in the Libyan Desert. Thanks for watching! They still are regarded as different. This video addresses some common questions about north Africans. “We’re completely cut out of the picture when it comes to research on a variety of topics in this country,” said Jordan Harb, 19, who is half-Lebanese. One of the largest is “Yalla, Count Me In” (“yalla” means “come on” in Arabic), a partnership between the Arab American Institute and American Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee, which are both based in Washington, D.C. Adi said a main goal of the campaign is “making sure that everyone understands that the data that the Census Bureau is collecting is the most protected data that the government collects,” which is why an accurate count is critical. The basal two deities of Berber cosmology - a solar figure and a lunar one - are loosely analogous to those of the Egyptians, suggesting a common cultural origin. 6 (2 views). That they think that, yeah, it’s OK.”. Hag registered their son as black. We recommend moving this block and the preceding CSS link to the HEAD of your HTML file. The first northwestern African capital was at al-Qayrawan. “If they don’t know the number of this minority group, then they tend not to listen to the problems that this group is facing,” said Usama Shami, president of the Islamic Community Center of Phoenix. Starting in the 1980s, Arab Americans realized that identifying as white didn’t mean they would be treated as white Americans. Within Arizona, the bureau has partnered with mosques to reach out to immigrants from Muslim countries, including those in the Middle East — a “hard to count community,” in government terms, because its level of participation in the census is very low. “I live with privilege, but everyone I care about doesn’t have the privilege,” he said. In an increasingly diverse country, the “Other” category has become the third-largest race group in the United States. For Elkeshky, finding a more suitable category for Middle Easterners and North Africans is important not so much because of how she and her husband identify themselves, but because of their three children. The daily news products are produced by the Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication at Arizona State University. That’s why some community groups rooted in the Arab American community have launched outreach campaigns of their own. “The way that my family has been treated and the way that my family lives in this country is not the equivalent of the majority of my peers who would consider themselves white,” said Jordan Harb, who is Lebanese. That means many respondents from the region – usually referred to by its acronym MENA – will again check the box that reads “White, including Middle Eastern” in the 2020 census. Race-based legislation in the North 1807 - 1850: ... African Americans in the North lived in a strange state of semi-freedom. Outside, by the intricate steel doors that guard the main entrance, two volunteers working for the Council of American-Islamic Relations, known as CAIR, hand small blue flyers to the worshipers who pass by, many of them Muslim refugees from countries in the Middle East and Africa. The idea was proposed during the Obama administration, after many years of pressure from members of a growing community asking to be counted as they think they should. North African populations have been described as a mosaic of North African, Middle Eastern, European and sub-Saharan ancestries. Find a staff list and description of our beats here. FIG. “There’s a part of our message testing showing that there’s a fear of trust in the government – that is very understandable,” Adi said. Take Usama Shami, the president of the Islamic Community Center of Phoenix. It also filed an amicus brief this year when the Trump administration’s push to add a citizenship question to the 2020 census came before the Supreme Court, arguing that the question would lower the participation of ethnic communities that would fall under the MENA category, as well as other communities of color. North African Ethnicity The North Africa region includes modern-day Morocco, Algeria, Western Sahara and Libya. We clearly are not and what gives the government the right to label us as such? The time has come to discuss North Africa, but are they White, Black or Middle Eastern? Learn more about what we do and how to find our content on our broadcast, digital and social media platforms. “No one can tell if we’re being specific with what we’re going through because no one can track where we are.”, Since the first census in 1790, there have been many changes in the ways racial and ethnic categories are presented, for several reasons. For example, a report by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality said collecting health data in the Latino community has been a challenge because many Latino respondents check “Some other race” on official forms. One other is the diversity of the region. One is that it makes it harder to identify trends specific to certain communities, particularly health statistics, which are directly linked to race and ethnicity categories defined by the census. They fear the information they give will be used in some form of surveillance. For example, “black” disappeared from census forms from 1930 to 1960, only to be reintroduced in 1970 because of the wave of racial pride that had grown in the wake of the civil rights movement. The Arab American Institute last year filed a lawsuit in U.S. District Court in Washington, D.C., to force the U.S. government to disclose internal documents detailing the decision that led to the exclusion of MENA as a category in the 2020 census. “Korean,” a stand-alone ethnic category from 1920 to 1940, vanished for two decades, returning in 1970 in response to an increase in the number of Korean immigrants in the United States. The Middle East and North Africa is composed of about 20 countries, covering a vast array of ethnic groups, which complicates questions about race and ethnicity. (Photo by Chloe Jones/Cronkite News). A person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. This individual is a Shluh Berber from the Sous, south- ern Morocco. The Home Preservation Grant will provide mortgage relief for grant recipients suffering from … Some of them may pass as white, but others do not. “There isn’t one simple trajectory.”. They got what they wanted. Although there won’t be any new categories for the 2020 questionnaire, the Census Bureau will for the first time make census forms available in 13 languages, including Arabic, which is widely spoken in the Middle East and North Africa. No Middle Eastern Or North African Category On 2020 Census, Bureau Says The Census Bureau's announcement about its race and ethnicity questions … An equally standardized Mediterranean from the Riffian coastal tribe of Beni Itteft, northern Morocco. (Photo by Chloe Jones/Cronkite News). And while she fully embraces her Palestinian identity, she hesitates in calling herself “brown” because of her light complexion. In 2017, the American Community Survey, an annual sampling of the U.S. population by the Census Bureau, estimated there were 1.9 million Arab Americans in the country. 2020 - 2021 Marathons held in Africa The calendar regroups all kinds of activities (Running, Walking, Nordic Walking, Vertical Races, Obstacle races, Dog runs, Multiday events ...). But as the years passed, they began to realize that identifying as white may not be their best choice. #mc_embed_signup{background:#fff; clear:left; font:14px Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif; } “If I am to be identified by a race, I resemble African Americans.”. North Africans aren't black The idea that North Africans are black arose as a desperate attempt by black academics to culturally validate sub-Saharan Africans by arbitrarily equating "Africa" with "black" in order that black people could take credit for the great civilizations of North Africa. Creative Commons, Arab American Institute and American Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee, Even in COVID-19 climate, job security an issue for coaches, including Arizona’s Sumlin, First COVID-19 vaccines, vaccinations expected in Arizona by Dec. 15, Teams, families scramble following Phoenix City Council decision to cancel sports tournaments, Greatness of Mesquite quarterback Ty Thompson to be featured in 4A semifinal, Home on the road: COVID-19 closures mean Lakers fans will travel to see the champs play, Once used to track foodborne illnesses, UArizona team now traces COVID contacts, Navajo warn hospitals at ‘breaking point’ in worsening COVID-19 surge, Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication. Inside, the sound of the athan, the Muslim call to prayer, reverberates loudly. I’m not white and I’m not ‘other,'” said Maie Elkeshky, who moved to the U.S. from Egypt with her husband, Eslam Hag, in 2005. Around that time, Stiffler said, Arabs began to hire lawyers to help them gain the right to classify themselves as white, using money raised by their community to pay for the legal fees. Shami, 57, who is of Palestinian descent, has struggled to find the right way to identify himself on government forms since coming to the United States from Kuwait in the 1970s. (Photo by Chloe Jones/Cronkite News). I truly believe that we are the group that’s discriminated against the most, especially when it comes to applying to colleges. It may be the case that all of your known ancestors, or all of your recent ancestors as far back as you can trace, were of primarily European descent. The presence of proto-Berber peoples from prehistory is evident in Saharan caves, where rock paintings depicting diverse megafaunal life point to evidence that before the desertification of the Sahara, northern Africa was a lush and resource-rich region populated by hunter-gatherer societies. “Because deep inside their minds, I feel that they really think that I deserve it. In politics and academia, north African countries are commonly grouped with the Middle East under the umbrella of MENA. The army quickly took Barqa, Tripoli, and Sabratha, establishing a military outpost for further successes in the Maghreb of coastal northwestern Africa. In every decennial census, under “race,” Shami picks “White, including Middle Eastern,” though, to him, the choice has never felt right. The North African slave markets were part of the Berber slave trade. Meanwhile, at the Islamic Community Center of Phoenix, Shami has welcomed volunteers and census workers on Fridays, a dedicated day of worship for Muslims, to talk about the importance of participating in the survey. That means many respondents from the region – usually referred to by its acronym MENA – will again check the box that reads “White, including Middle Eastern” in the 2020 census. Because so much attention was being paid to the presidential, gubernatorial, and U.S. Senate races here, the Lt. Governor’s race … © 2020 Cronkite News. Although one part of his ethnic identity will not be represented in 2020, Shami said he is doing what he can to make sure that as many Muslims as possible make their voices heard. For many Middle Easterners and North Africans, selecting “Other” on a government survey that is the constitutional base for important political decisions – from determining how many representatives each state will have in Congress to distributing federal funding – feels like negating their identity. Although we (North Africans) are considered Caucasian, I always choose African American or Black. It includes people who indicate their race as "White" or report entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Arab, Moroccan, or Caucasian. History was made in North Carolina last night. Still, on government forms, he said that he usually chooses “Other” because categorizing himself as white seems wrong. But the Trump administration scrapped the plan early last year, a decision that advocates in Middle Eastern and North African communities say did not come with a convincing explanation. The time has come to discuss North Africa, but are they White, Black or Middle Eastern? (Photo by Chloe Jones/Cronkite News). The 2020 census was supposed to include a new race category for people from the Middle East and North Africa. (It is also important to note that while all Arabs are from the Middle East and North Africa, not everyone from the Middle East and North Africa is Arab.). Many judges concluded that Middle Easterners were covered by the Immigration Act of 1924, which barred Asians from entering the country. Samia Muraweh, whose father is Palestinian, hesitates calling herself “brown” because of her light complexion. In conferences I have … In an interview, he recalled his time as a college student in rural Oklahoma, when he saw a fellow Palestinian get beaten up by a white student while putting gas in his car and heard of a Syrian student who had a kidney permanently damaged after two white men attacked him, seemingly for no reason. But it has its problems. “I always had a really hard time fitting myself into a category because I’m never Arab enough,” Harb said. Elkeshky registered their two daughters as white because there was no other option, she said. “I want them to be able to feel like they are well-represented in their community or in their workplace and they’re not ignored,” Elkeshky said. When it’s not, their next choice is “White, including Middle Eastern,” despite both of them saying that white doesn’t accurately represent their Egyptian identity. “We need people who speak the languages of the neighborhoods that they’re going to work in,” he said. North Africa, region of Africa comprising the modern countries of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya.. 5 (2 views); A small Mediterranean who may be taken as a type example of this race in its North African form. PHOENIX – It’s late October but still too warm for fall. But that is not the case with a lot of his relatives on the Lebanese side of his family. Farah Eltohamy expects to graduate with a bachelor’s degree in spring 2021 and a master’s degree in spring 2022. These help answer people's questions about ethnicity, race, and the overall origins of the human population. The answer to this question, simply put, is that if you have Africa North on your ethnicity results, then it is likely that all of your ancestors were not European. §count races … The flyers read: “Census 2020, Fair & Accurate for Arizona.”. “In terms of skin color or what I belong to, I feel more African,” Hag said. They still suffer from discrimination. All rights reserved. For example, people might identify their race as Aboriginal, African American or Black, Asian, European American or White, Native American, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, Māori, or some other race. Despite its size, Libya has a small population relative to other African nations. Jeremy Vetter, an associate professor of history at the University of Arizona, said these have ranged from “changing ideas of race and ethnicity” to “empowerment of different groups of people and how they should be recorded.”, “It’s been a long, messy process,” Vetter said. FIG. The 2013 estimate showed that 6,411,776 persons lived in Libya. “But I’m never white enough to feel like I have a part of my mom’s family.”, “I would like to be represented and (have) people acknowledge that I’m here. Elkeshky, 36, has a lighter skin tone than her husband, but, she said, calling herself white doesn’t feel right. Historically, Imazighen nations spoke the Tamazight languages, which are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Find out how your news organization can use Cronkite News content. “I think many people are resorting to using the term brown because, rather than more of like a physical trait, it’s more of like the ambiguity of ‘I’m not actually white, but I’m not black,'” Muraweh said. Lack of trust in the government is one reason Arab Americans have low response rates in the census, said Suher Adi, a policy associate at the Arab American Institute, a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization founded in 1985. These countries, along with Mauritania and Tunisia, are often referred to as the Maghreb. Race and ethnicity standards are determined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB). The majority of North Africa's population west of Egypt is believed to be Imazighen in ethnic origin, although due to Arabization and Islamization some ethnic Imazighen identify as Arabized Berbers. 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