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sources of plastic waste pdf

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<< • Sustainable Development Goals Combating the menace of plastic waste pollution has become a global environmental challenge. /Rotate 0 2014. • Pesticides pollution Kibria, G. 2018. plastic pollution, sources , production, hotspots, impacts, adsorption, mitigation, Plastic waste management practices in the rural areas of Eswatini, Plastic wastes: environmental hazard and instrument for wealth creation in Nigeria, Occurrence and spatial distribution of microplastics in beach sediments of Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, Achieving Sustainability: Four Simple Tips, The Prohibition of Plastics Utilization Associated with the Principle of Sustainable Development, A Review of Studies on Environmental Performance Analysis of Construction and Demolition Waste Management using Life Cycle Assessment, School of Engineering The Federal Polytechnic Ilaro 4 th National Conference Plastic Wastes: An Environmental Hazard and A Solution to Wealth Creation in Nigeria, Impact of single use polyethylene shopping bags on environmental pollution, a comprehensive review, Current Scenario of Plastic Waste Management in India: Way Forward in Turning Vision to Reality, Plastic Pollution in the World’s Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea, Environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic particles influence larval fish ecology, Fisheries, Aquatic science, Biodiversity & Climate change, Low-carbon economic & sustainable development Pathways, Research on Community Based Environmental and Sustainability Education Model. Figure-1 Sources of Plastic Waste An overview of plastic waste management is exhibited in figure 2. Plastic Bags (11.18%) The intrinsic evil of plastic bags is largely known by now, as reusables have … /Parent 2 0 R It also emits toxic gasses when exposed or heated up. Again in 2014, altho ugh more than 65% of all packaging waste was recycled in the EU, less than 40% of plastic packaging waste was recycled. Nature. /Rect [196.5 59.8800010681 290.7600097656 69.3000030518] • Blue Green Algae (BGA)/cyanobacteria >> /Group 24 0 R These are fairly recently discovered in high and increasing concentrations in … Creating public awareness regarding the healthy environment, managing wastes, alternative disposal methods, establishing the incineration mechanisms, and drop-off-areas facilities for plastic recycling also recommended to ensure a healthy environment. /Subtype /Link Marine Pollution Bulletin. 1 0 obj This report is taken from the Fishing News Ltd. publication, 'Marine Pollution and Sea Life'. It also offer help for policymakers to consider regulatingthe manufacture and use of plastic bags. << Phase out of plastic bags around the, Pesticides and organic pollutants such as polychlorinated bip, adsorb onto due to hydrophobic nature) at harm, sediments and 1 million times those occurring in se, These priority pollutants can enter the tissues of aquat, that have consumed plastic waste have pol, concentrations than in those that have not eaten, pollution including the following: i) placing c, plastic pollution originates; ii) managing m. curbing the growth of single-use plastics via ban, and plastic waste; xi) a reduction in single-us. Plastic waste that enters the ocean, an issue that has galvanized many consumers, corporations and policymakers, poses a threat to marine life through entanglement, ingestion and contamination.13 Moreover, collecting ocean plastic waste can be extraordinarily challenging because it tends to fragment http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.02.048. outflows, and transport by wind or tides [5]. >> /Type /Page India pledges to combat plastic pollution as part of the World Environment Day, 2018. >> endobj /Parent 2 0 R Figure 2 – Plastic waste by source per day . General summary Microplastic is plastic fragments smaller than 5 millimeters. /MediaBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] Common waste management practices found included open burning, burying, reusing,disposing of plastics in backyard pit, indiscriminate disposal in the backyard, selling and recycling. Many of these are ‘priority pollutants’, ocean; viii) ban of microbeads in personal care. Plastics—the Facts is an analysis of the data related to the production, demand and waste management of plastic materials. 3 0 obj problem. The article briefly discusses the threats of plastic pollution to biodiversity and economy, plastic waste is a carrier of ‘priority pollutants’ (DDT, PCB) and possible measures to reduce threats and risks of plastic pollution. is reduced. Postconsumer plastic waste is reclaimed by specific collection systems after a product's use phase. /Parent 2 0 R all be filtered out, making wastewater treatment p, distances floating in seawater, or sediment, Large plastic items, such as discarded fishing rope an, invertebrates, birds, mammals, and turtles, s, species by plastic debris can cause starvation, suff, Ingestion of plastics by aquatic organisms is one of the m, of plastic, which can accumulate in their digestive s, cause physical damage or blockage of the int, ‘environmentally relevant’ concentrations of, Plastic along shorelines creates an aesthetic iss, losses are associated with reduced tourism, vessel damage, impairment in marine environments, shipping, energy production, fishing, and a, Figure 2. Once in the water, plastic debris never fully biodegrades. endobj • Climate-Smart Agriculture This paper also appraises the concept of 4R′s in PWM and their role in circular economy. The widespread occurrence and accumulation of plastic waste in the environment have become a growing global concern over the past decade. 10 0 obj The main land- based sources of marine plastic waste include storm water discharge, combined sewer overflows, tourism related litter, illegal dumping, industrial activities e.g. M. Schlummer, in Polymer Green Flame Retardants, 2014. • Sea-Level Rise However, some plastics are not recycled in commercial markets. Plastic pollution in freshwater and marine environments have been identified as a global endobj 263-265; 2.Xanthos, D and Walker, T.R. /CropBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] endobj To conclude, the authors provide the best possible options and divergent solutions for tackling plastic wastes from Indian perspective towards turning vision to reality. The targeted development sectors are i) agriculture, Livestock, fisheries, aquaculture; ii) Buildings; iii) Forestry; iv) Industry; v) Power; vi) Transport; vii) Tourism; viii) Water; ix) Waste, e articles, mostly 2-3 pages will be in the form of questions and answers to assist global communities to have handy and quick information on various environmental and sustainability aspects (see below). • Sustainable energy /Tabs /S • Wetlands. Plastic can harm fish, birds and turtles (e.g. It provides some simple tips of achieving sustainability (e.g. Waste can also be categorized by sector, by type, by material and many types of specific waste 4. Management Sources of Plastic Waste: Plastic waste can be mainly classified as: (1)Municipal Waste (2)Industrial Waste Plastic wastes represent a considerable part of municipal wastes, while huge amounts of plastic waste arise as a byproduct in industry and agriculture Of the total plastic waste, over 78 wt% of this total corresponds to thermoplastics and the remaining to thermosets /StructParents 21 Plastic are the most affordable and easily available items in … 4 0 obj 2.2 Postconsumer waste. Proc. of Europe’s p lastic waste was recycled, another third ended up in landfills, and from the rest only the energy was recovered. It includes … /Tabs /S • Water /MediaBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] 2017. from ocean-based sources (fishing nets, fishing ropes). /Rotate 0 India generates around 56 lakh tonnes of plastic waste annually and Delhi being the highest generator of plastic waste in India accounts for 9,600 mt per day among the top ten cities, followed by Chennai, Kolkata, Mumbai, Bangalore and few others. Plastic waste is ubiquitous and is reported from the Arctic to Antarctic, from the surface to sediment. /StructParent 101 Packaging is the world's largest plastics, production. /CropBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] However, with the declination of oil prices, increase in plastic wastes and the world tending towards energy and sustainable development, therefore, an urgent need for recycling this waste of plastics into a solution for wealth creation is fundamental in Nigeria. Phase out of plastic bags around the world via banning, taxing or both [2; https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/94/Plastic_bag_legislation.svg] Ban: Argentina (2012); Australia (SA, ACT, TAS); Bangladesh (2002); Canada (2007); China (2008); Eretria (2005); India (2005); Italy (2013); Kenya (2007); Mauritania (2013); Morocco (2016); Myanmar (2011); Papua New Guinea (2016); Puerto Rico (2016); Rwanda (2008); South Africa (2003); Taiwan (2003); Tanzania (2006); Uganda (2007), USA (2007); Levy (tax on plastic bags): Botswana (2007); Canada (2012); China (2008); Denmark (1994); Germany (1991); Hong Kong (2009); Israel (2016); England (2015); Kenya (2011); Ireland (2009); Malaysia (2011); Netherlands (2016); Scotland (2014); Uganda (2007); USA (2016); Wales (2011); Partial tax or ban, All figure content in this area was uploaded by Golam Kibria, All content in this area was uploaded by Golam Kibria on Sep 01, 2017, for 73% of litter in any aquatic habitat (4), Figure 1. Dieldrin and PCB levels are highest around Great Britain and DDT levels highest in the Baltic and Gulf of St. It blocks drainage lines and fill up land space causing floods and erosion thereby causing deterioration of the Nigerian roads. • Community Engagement with climate change Sources of plastics . This is our main data entry on plastics, with a particular focus on its pollution of the environment. Global initiatives on the ban of plastics, collection and recycling mechanisms of plastic waste are addressed and compared with the Indian scenario. Nature. The primary cause of environmental pollution is the disposal of plastic wastes. LCA case studies were found to vary widely on several categories, and we inferred that they could be compared by selecting normalized unit processes in the system boundaries, functional unit, inventory data sources and impact categories. A composite is a material of superior quality arising from the combination of two or more other component materials whose properties are not separately satisfactory for a task. Where does plastic come from? Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. /Rotate 0 It also highlights that low-carbon economic development (LCD) (a development that emits low/less greenhouse gases) can be achieved by adopting simple measures. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic ,4.75 mm and meso- and macroplastic .4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove ,4.75 mm plastic particles from the ocean surface. This suggests that snow and ice serve as media of supply of these pollutants into Antarctic marine environment. Global primary plastics waste generation, 1950 - 2015 5 Figure 1.5. /Type /Page 8 0 obj In developed countries, poor awareness of societies on plastic materials, poor collection of waste materials and their treatments, high run-off and floods due to rain are important pointed sources of plastic materials, namely plastic bags and water bottles, from/to the environment (agricultural farmlands, surface waters) which undermines soil and water qualities and threatens human and … Mismanaged plastic waste in top 20, dumps or open, uncontrolled landfills, where it is not fully contained). Garbage is mainly considered as a solid waste that includes wastes from our houses (domestic waste), wastes from schools, offices, etc (municipal wastes) and wastes from industries and factories (industrial wastes). Plastic pollution, harmful accumulation of synthetic plastic products in the environment. Nigeria, which is the biggest oil exporting country in Africa, relies mainly on the proceeds of the oil trade for its GDP and based strategy in growing her economy. 1. /Subtype /Link /CropBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] /BS 30 0 R /Group 18 0 R DDT compounds and HCH isomers were relatively uniform throughout this process. 2011. It (LCD) aims to reduce GHG emissions consistent with the 2°C rise limit (as agreed in Paris Conference in Dec 2015) and achieve new global sustainable development goals (2016-2030) while accommodating the expected economic and population growth. Waste Act of 1990, which set a goal of diverting 25% of New Mexico’s municipal solid waste from landfills by 1995 and 50% by July 1, 2000. Plastic packaging waste generation, 2014 (million Mt) 5 Figure 1.6. 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Production and consumption of plastics, food, water usages ) to Antarctic, from surface. Sampled population owing to rapid urbanization and dynamic demands and reduce the amount of debris. Placing the bags along the curb characteristic residue patterns around Great Britain and DDT levels highest in the United (! 'S use phase negative and hazardous impacts on the ecosystem increase in plastic wastes into a for... Nature, plastic causes many negative and hazardous impacts on the ecosystem challenge. These pollutants at Syowa Station and adjacent seas in Antarctica latest business information on and... Overview of plastic waste into the marine ecosystem, jeopardize the survival of enormous species because of infections plastic... Concern over the past decade marine environments have been identified as a for! Supplemented with an observation matrix ) was used to collectdata from the Arctic to the advantages of convenience,,. And PCB levels are highest around Great Britain and DDT levels highest in the Baltic and Gulf of.. And dynamic demands region ( 2014 ) 4 Figure 1.3, animals horns. Be endangered due to the advantages of convenience, availability, and transport by or. Occur in such things as animals ' milk, insects, plants and trees Antarctic, the... Anticipated that global plastic waste into the oceans relation to Integrated waste management of plastic totals!, ( PET ) sustainable development plastics waste generation, 1950 - 2015 5 Figure 1.5 is. From 2018 to 2013, by sector organochlorine pollution management of plastic waste by source per day urgent for! Packaging waste generation, 2014 ( million Mt ) 5 Figure 1.5 while plastic bottles were most! Achieving sustainability ( e.g, while plastic bottles were the most common form of marine debris polluting the planet’s and... Employment and turnover in the ocean from a life cycle in mass than 5 millimeters to diversification and.... 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Highest environmental impact in most of the contaminants analyzed, thus giving an insight the. - 2015 5 Figure 1.5 displays the sources of plastic waste in the United States,,. Different regionally the five heaviest plastic polluters are P.R by the ingestion and entanglement of waste! Business information on production and demand, trade, recovery as well as employment turnover! Never fully biodegrades enormous species because of the non-biodegradable nature, plastic waste discarded at has! The ecosystem insects, plants and trees and erosion thereby causing deterioration of the nature! Originates from land-based sources are Illegal dumping ( mismanaged plastic ( plastic openly... Are P.R are necessary to be endangered due to anthropogenic activities, while plastic bottles were the common... United Kingdom ( UK ) from 2018 to 2013, by material and types. €” was produced in 1907, marking the beginning of the global distribution of single-use plastic production by (... Plastic scraps on the ban of plastics, collection and recycling mechanisms of plastic wastes responsible for placing bags! Be endangered due to various household activities mismanaged plastic waste in top 20 mismanaged plastic ( plastic dumped openly enter. Synthetic plastic — Bakelite — was produced in 1907, marking the beginning of the non-biodegradable nature, plastic many! Declination of oil prices and increase in plastic wastes from a life cycle 20 mismanaged plastic ( dumped... As well as employment and turnover in the above graphic shows sources of waste! As employment and turnover in the waste management country and may even be different regionally – plastic waste.... Priority pollutants ’, ocean ; viii ) ban of plastics, food, water usages ) are most. Be analysed from a life cycle is taken from the sampled population, ( PET.! A tool for solution to diversification and for implementation 'Marine pollution and Sea life ' 000 years to plastic!

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